CHAPTER III: Methodology 41
3.0. Overview42
3.1. Setting and Participants42
3.2. Instruments43
3.2.1. Critical Pedagogy Attitude Questionnaire43
3.2.2IELTS (International English Language Testing System)45
3.3. Procedure45
3.3.1. Data Collection45
3.3.2. Data Analysis46
3.4. Ethical Considerations46
CHAPTER IV: Results and Discussion48
4.0. Overview49
4.1. Main Results49
4.2. Discussion54
CHAPTER V: Conclusion and Recommendations 57
5.0. Overview58
5.1. Summary58
5.2. Brief Overview of the Findings59
5.3. Theoretical and Pedagogical Implications60
5.4. Suggestions for Further Research61
Appendix A: Critical Pedagogy Attitude Questionnaire75
Appendix B: The Female Group with IELTS Band Score 677
Appendix C: The Female Group with IELTS Band Score 579
Appendix D: The Female Group with IELTS Band Score 681
Appendix E: The Female Group with IELTS Band Score 582
List of Tables
Table 3.1: Participants’ Characteristics44
Table 3.2: Reliability Coefficient44
Table 4.1: Stastistical Description Critical Pedagogy Attitude Questionnaire and total Band Scores, 6 and 5, of IELTS proficiency test49
Table 4.2: One Sample Kolmogorov- Smirnov Test50
Table 4.3: Group Statistics between IELTS Band Scores51
Table 4.4: Independent Samples T-Test between Critical Pedagogy Attitude Questionnaire and total Band Scores, 6 and 5, of IELTS proficiency test51
Table 4.5: Group Statistics between Male Group and Female Group52
Table 4.6: Independent Samples T-Test between Critical Pedagogy Attitude Questionnaire and Gender Difference52
Table 4.7: Effect Size 53
Table 5.1: The Brief Overview of All Independent Samples Test 60
1.1. Overview
Freire (1970) Critical Pedagogy can be analyzed in many fields of study.
In this respect, Critical Pedagogy (CP) announced to be the way to analyze, education including English Language Teaching (ELT), a new dimension, which has the interaction of social and political elements to holds the view which education is not impartial, and it both affects and is affected by the social and political elements (Freire, 1970).
Critical pedagogy tries to face students with more aims of education to make autonomous students; it is stated that learners acquire their own voice to participate critically in their own processing; that is, confident learners are capable of critiquing learning problems and begin to seek even instruction in their classrooms _what will we have to act in a society in the future?(Freire, 1970).
Recently, ELT researchers try to administer the view of CP to study language learning and acquisition; that is, they are looking for utilizing this social and political theory in assisting teaching as a component of education.
Therefore, they are starting to understand the sociopolitical elements with the represent of the critical viewpoint many scholars in ELT industry as uncovering the hidden aim of scholars’ thoughts and ideologies (Freire, 1970).
Critical theory is interested in the concepts of human beings and the relations between them such as cultural, economic, political, and the power to influence people’s behavior or course of events (Freire, 1973).
Through enabling convert of life requirements, a philosopher of critical theory agrees on satisfying free oppressed members of a race religion or culture (Freire, 1973).
Also, according to Freire (1970), utilizing the body of bases belonging to critical subjects is the main source in language teaching and learning.
Thus, Pre-service teacher education may take advantage of Critical Pedagogy to provide professional ELT teachers before the real actual teaching (Schon, 1996). 
A main disclosure during such critical education theory can be the practical section of a course of study when the pre-service teachers are trained to face their students’ critical thoughts within multiple school settings (beginning to advanced courses) (Schon, 1996).
According to Schon(1996), the pre-service teachers will be had the chance to improve their skills through classroom curriculum, teaching lessons, and lesson plans to allow Critical Pedagogy is run.
Therefore, this consoled and vital aspect is the main component of any course, such as ELT courses, to be assigned in curriculums.
Also, because of the viewpoint of critical pedagogy, teachers are capable of bearing the task of questioning the inappropriate curriculums to assist their own learners in language processing, for example (Canagarajah, 1999).
According to Hall (1995), socio-historical and political elements are parts of ELT components which are related to the theory of language learning and teaching in social characteristics of learners.
It seems that Critical Pedagogy is able to gain the momentum to come from a huge amount of experiment to create conditions to help learners in recent years. In spite of acquiring multiple researchers in this area from the past and recent years, it seems that a few papers could target the main and vital characters of Critical Pedagogy in ELT.
Thus, the present study tries to bright a major theme in CP including teacher, for example, in CP. However, Okazaki (2005) argued that classrooms are far removed from conditions which deal with historical and social aspects.
Critical theory face the view of a society in which people require to control political, economic, and cultural aspects of their lives(Kincheloe, 2005).
Critical Pedagogy may be the approach to assist language teachers, for example, to concern the power of learners’ relations with the processed language and their society which they live. Critical Pedagogy (CP) is a start to deal with in a certain way of language teaching and learning.
Kincheloe (2005) believed that converting connections between people or groups of abilities which are depressing leads to depression among the people. CP seeks to give human qualities to learning (Kincheloe, 2005).
Likewise, according to Kincheloe (2005), advocates of critical theory assume that these aims are satisfied only through liberating unsuccessful learners to empower their abilities to change their educational conditions.
The main assumption of Critical Pedagogy is with criticizing the educational context in societies. As Gor (2005) puts it, the main goals of Critical Pedagogy are conscious raising and rejecting any signs of discrimination against people in any field.
Therefore, this theory seeks to help unsuccessful learners, for example, to save them from being objects of acquisition to subjects of their own autonomy in learning.
With this respect, learners are able to change their societies via appropriate education; that is, it is done through problem solving, surveying the problematic subjects in learners’ lives, and developing a critical awareness to assist learners to improve their educational conditions because it is important to take appropriate actions to structure and equitable society (Gor, 2005). Thus, it is crystal clear that Critical Pedagogy face any inappropriate dominations with the goal of assisting unsuccessful people to achieve their demands.
Moreover, “language learning theory, and teaching should focus on larger socio-historical and political forces which reside in the social identities of people who use them” (as cited in Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011, p. 78). However, Okazaki (2005) claimed that most teachers ignore historical and social conditions of their classrooms.
According to Okazaki (2005), as a consequence, researchers advocating examining socio-historical and political aspects of language learning (Benesch, 2001; Canagarajah, 1999, 2002; Morgan 1998). They recommended an optional access – critical pedagogy- which some researchers mentioned it.
It may be the main organ of language pedagogy (Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011). It is wondered to see that Critical Pedagogy has increased in impetus recently; therefore, some substantiation come from a lot of researches about CP to accept this claim.
Byean (2011) claimed that Critical Pedagogy mainly supports teachers to investigate English language in relation to the historical and cultural issues.
However, English teachers must understand ELT with more judgmental minds; furthermore, Critical Pedagogy may encourage English teachers to obtainthe role of English to clarify how ELT is affected with the procreation of social unfairness in distinctive backgrounds (Byean, 2011).
In fact, critical theory was the point of commencement for Critical Pedagogy (Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011).
The main interest of Critical Pedagogy is the act of giving an evaluation of good and bad qualities for schooling in an economic system based on competition between businesses and societies (Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011).
Moreover, the main purposes of Critical Pedagogy “are awareness raising and rejection of violation and discrimination against people” (as cited in Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011, p. 77).
According to Freire (1973), Critical Pedagogy is similar to critical theory, that is, it seeks to convert depression members of a race religion or culture to maintain them “from being objects of education to the subjects of their own autonomy and emancipation” (as cited in Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011, p. 77).
Therefore, language learners can be able to maintain converting their fellowships “through emancipatory education” (as cited in Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011, p. 77).
Also, some language teaching researchers believed “through problem posing education and questioning the problematic issues in learners’ lives, students learn to think critically and develop a critical consciousness which help them to improve their life conditions and to take necessary actions to build an equitable society” (Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011, p. 77).
Therefore, Critical Pedagogy stimulates any frameworks of dominion, suppression and subjugation with the purpose of decreasing depression.
Kissing-Styles (2003) mentioned that Critical Pedagogy is an instructive reactionto unfairness relations in instructive places where people are confined and treated.
Also, Byean (2011) claimed that Critical Pedagogy mainly supports teachers to investigate English language in relation to the historical and cultural issues.
However, English teachers must understand ELT with more judgmental minds; furthermore, Critical Pedagogy may encourage English teachers to obtainthe role of English to clarify how ELT is affected with the procreation of social unfairness in distinctive backgrounds (Byean, 2011).
1.1. Statement of the problem
Nowadays, Iranian people are interested in learning at least one foreign language to maintain their relationships to the world wide village.
Meanwhile, there has been an increasing inclination among language researchers with the involvement of CP all around the world. The outbreak involvements of CP affect all branches of studies in language pedagogy.
Also, “critical perspectives towards ELT industry and the role of English in the world are immersing worldwide” (Pishvaei & Kasaian, 2013, p. 60).

Therefore, ELT researchers should concern about their obligations of distinguishing the issue ofconcealed particular parts or features of EFL equipment, and supplies needed for English learning such as English teachers.
By concerning the vital role of English teachers and the outgrown interest of Iranian people toward English learning in a country with the Islamic regulations and policies, ones can understand the necessity of reliable and valid documents to judge the worth or quality of Iranian ELT characteristics and interests of a critical attitude. The researchers, therefore, took this important issue into concern.
That is, In the light of the attempts to refine structure of books and writings on this particular subject, Critical pedagogy, and the absence and deficiency of a valid and reliable critical pedagogy thought in the context of Iran, this study is an effect to develop and validate a research to influence community’s critical attitude towards the critical ELT.
1.2. Significance of the study
Confident learners are capable of critiquing learning problems and begin to seek even instruction in their classrooms.
In spite of taking in so much concentration of awareness on some Critical Pedagogy to the exclusion of other stimuli both in days gone by and recent years, it appears that few researchers have investigated significant subjects in Critical Pedagogy in a limited manner.
Therefore, the present study could be used to investigate any signs of difference in term of gender and proficiency levels among TEFL pre-service teachers on some significant aspects in Critical Pedagogy such as critical issues in ELT, teacher roles, and Praxis language in CP to evaluate the incorporation of Critical Pedagogy among Iranian EFL pre-service teachers in the future.

1.3. Purpose of the study
Critical theory is interested in the concepts of human beings and the relations between them such as cultural, economic, political, and the power to influence people’s behavior or course of events (Freire, 1973).
Critical Pedagogy considers education as a tool for individuals to “better themselves and strengthen democracy, to create a more egalitarian and just society, and thus to deploy education in the process of progressive social change” (Kellner, 2000, p. 7).
Therefore, this study investigated the incorporation of Critical Pedagogy among Iranian EFL pre-service teachers to help educators and policy makers make appropriate decisions about the CP in relation to Iranian EFL pre-services’ English proficiency.
Also, the relation between sex and English proficiency among of Iranian EFL pre-service teachers was taken in this regard.
In addition, the present study investigated the significant differences of the incorporation of Critical Pedagogy between males and females.
That is, the present study tried to investigate any signs of difference in term of gender and proficiency levels among TEFL pre-service teachers in Critical Pedagogy to evaluate the incorporation of Critical Pedagogy among Iranian EFL pre-service teachers.
1.4. Research questions
To fulfill the main purpose of the study, the following research questions were raised:
1. Is there any correlation between EFL pre-service teachers’ proficiency and their attitudes toward critical pedagogy?
2. Can the gender affect the correlation of EFL pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward critical pedagogy?
1.5. Research hypotheses
According to the posed research questions, the following null hypotheses were stated:
H01: There is not any correlation between Iranian EFL pre-service teachers’ proficiency and their attitudes toward critical pedagogy.
H02: The gender cannot affect the correlation of EFL pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward critical pedagogy.
1.6. Definition of keywords
Critical pedagogy: “It is a form of education in which students are encouraged to question dominant or common notions of meaning and form their own understanding of what they learn” (“wise-Geek,” 2013, para. 1).
Pre-service teacher: “It is a period of guided, supervised teaching. The college student is gradually introduced into the teaching role for a particular class of a mentor or cooperating teacher. The preservice teacher begins as an observer and finishes the pre-service teaching experience” (“Wesleyan Virginia College,” 2013, para. 3)
1.7. Delimitations and limitations of the study
• The present research had the following delimitation:
A reliable Critical Pedagogy Attitude Questionnaire, which was validated in Iran, was used in the present study.
The questionnaire concerned some significant aspects in Critical Pedagogy such as critical issues in ELT, teacher roles, and Praxis language in CP.
Thus, the present researcher focused on the same significant aspects of the present study.

• The present research had the following limitations:
1. Investigating Critical Pedagogy is a unique domain, so there were only a few studies about it and its measures.
2. Respondents were only chosen from a few Collages in Iran.
3. The participants of the study were between 20 to 30 years old.
4. Unfortunately, some colleges refused to participate in the present study.
Review of the Related Literature
2.0. Overview
This chapter is a brief review of related literature of the two factors of the present research: Critical Pedagogy and pre-service teacher.
2.1. Critical Pedagogy
Shor (1980) believed that Critical Pedagogy allows ones to comprehend their connections to methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various informal means of socialization.
Critical Pedagogy also boards education deficiencies relationships to the students and parents, teachers, administrators, and community members (Shor, 1980).
Critical Pedagogy represents everyday classroom that might deal with locality, region, country, and time (Shor, 1980).
Shor (1980) stated that Critical Pedagogy is also a practice of training people to obey rules or code of behavior; however, the Praxis of CP shows a practice and complete change beyond the individual.
Moreover, Critical Pedagogy acknowledges the significance of the individual’s interests and dependence on social relationships with others (Shor, 1980).
Freire (1996) assumed “there can be no educational practice that is not directed toward a certain objective, which does not involve a certain dream, an idea of utopia” (p. 127).
However, CP is excessively political, that is, teachers obligated to a Critical Pedagogy with political aspects to the classrooms; these aspects are burdensome requirement and left out(Monchinski, 2008). Monchinski (2008) claimed Critical Pedagogy form a better world by putting parts of interests together.
Monchinski (2008) “a teacher who thinks [his] subject matter is an esoteric field and only the smartest of students will “get it” and then be worthy, [he has] a vision of [his] own utopia, though one I argue against throughout this book”(p. 13).
Monchinski (2008) believed that the everyday classroom is a place where ones can stimulate kindness and cruelty. Monchinski (2008) also mentioned that the everyday classroom is a place where ones can process in their civilization. The everyday classrooms are a place where we can inspect our series of events judgmentally to acknowledge permanentor temporary beings and to accomplish utopias (Monchinski, 2008).
Monchinski (2008) analyzed Critical Pedagogy and the everyday classroom to understand that CP is Praxis with constituting reflection and action. The Praxis includes creating theoretical frameworks for practice and performing a theory.
“Praxis is thinking about what and why you’re going to do before you do it and then reflecting on what you did, how you did it, and how it turned out” (Monchinski, 2008, p. 1). Critical Pedagogy includes a practical relationship between exercising and theory.
This relationship is always in continues; it includes a continuous “give-and-take, a back-and-forth dialectical informing of practice by theory and theory by practice” (Monchinski, 2008, p. 1).
According to Praxis, Critical Pedagogy shouldn’t be inactive. It needs consideration between what happens in classrooms, “why it goes on, and what and whose ends are served—which is what makes a book like this difficult to write” (Monchinski, 2008, p. 1).
According to Byean (2011), the main thought of Critical Pedagogy is the concept of Marxism in accomplishing status in society and uniformity through accepting an opinion or attitude of all people.
Byean (2011) mentioned that, after the Cold War, the movement values in the social sciences that aim to depart significantly from traditional forms or ideas “were denounced as reductionism, functionalism, essentialism, and universalism which disregard the relative experiences or truth of each individual, and such reflection gave rise to a range of critical theories such as postmodernism and post-Marxism from diverse marginalized groups” (Byean, 2011, p. 13).
On presenting imparting of knowledge as a site of the clash, those judgmental schools focused the problems of existing ideas, depressing manners, and ranking systems of knowledge in producing education systems (Byean, 2011).

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Therefore, “CP has been also inspired by a number of anti-authoritarian and non-Marxist educational philosophies; such as John Dewey’s democratic education and alternative schools in the 20th century” (Byean, 2011, p. 13).
In addition, Crookes (2010) found that, on the basis of “the Progressive Movement of the social reconstructionism in the 1910s, Dewey advocated that schools should play central roles in promoting an equal society, and his educational perspective gave birth to alternative schools” (Byean, 2011, p. 13).
Even though the Critical Pedagogy brought distinctive educational opinions, it all longed for setting free social restrictions and democratic educations to respect single independency. “This viewpoint lies at the very heart of the critical theories and lays the foundation of CP in education” (Byean, 2011, p. 13).
2.1.1. Pedagogical Approach in Critical Pedagogy
Shore (1992) found that an empowering and critical pedagogical context assist teachers’ endeavor to organize existing knowledge or local issues from students’ concern in relation to the principles of socialism.
That is, “not only does this approach help students see themselves as knowledgeable people, but it also increases students’ motivation with their experiences being contextualized in lessons” (Shore,1992, p. 37).
Likewise, Critical Pedagogy determines learners’ experiences, facts, background knowledge, and feelings into the pedagogical circumstances of communication class, for example, that form the setting for an event by rejecting de-contextualized contents strongly to divorce a novel and local experience or context learners.
Also, it is significant to review how Critical Pedagogy can be useful for the construction of participatory classrooms; that is, teachers derive generative and thematic subjects and texts from learners’ daily lives and use them in contexts of learning.
This kind of teaching and learning are connected to learners’ real contexts within and outside classes (Shor, 1992).
Therefore, this kind of learning may help learners’ motivation to take apart in classroom activity critically; also, learners may comprehend the world knowledge better (Shor, 1992). “Such a process enables students to recognize social inequalities which they have been embedded in and empower them to seek for changing themselves and a community” (Shor, 1992, pp. 44-45).
To aim the target of stimulating students’ critical thoughts and behaviors, Critical Pedagogy focus on its impact on a dialogical approach; that is, focusing on a unified teacher-student relationship to identify both teachers and students role in a horizontal behavior to have reciprocally responsibility for tackling concealed meanings of problems in classrooms (Byean, 2011).
As an example, Byean (2011) reported that the pedagogical approach of critical pedagogy, dialogical approach, was posed two views of education as both adaptive and integrative in social science education, and adaptive education was rejected by a traditional analogy in an education system because teachers’ primary concern was the transferring of fixed knowledge from the centralknowledge and integrating the information in students.
In this case, Byean (2011) reported the following:
Students become more passive recipients and are not allowed to challenge the absolute authority of knowledge and the knowledge transmitters, i.e., teachers. It is obvious that students become less critical at the onset. Also, this traditional system neglects the roles of teachers, regarding them as simply knowledge delivers. Teachers, hence, are prone to fall into the net of the system and uncritically partake in the perpetuation of the dominant ideology by legitimizing the hegemony of the meritocracies. (p. 17)
On the contrary, the second approach of Critical Pedagogy is Problem-Posing Approach which has a face of transformational or integrative education, “and it does not necessarily seek for the answers posed problems since its main purpose is raising students’ critical awareness through the exploration of such problems; [therefore], the problem-posing of CP differs from the problem-solving of Communicative Language Teaching” (Byean, 2011, pp. 17-18).
This approach of Critical Pedagogy, problem-posing, includes affirming every individual’s knowledge as unfinished processes, which is known becoming (Byean, 2011).
In this respect, Byean (2011) believed that students and teachers try to determine the actualities and inconsistencies of the world via a dialogical approach which is the point of Communicative Language Teaching’s problem solving, rather than seeking substantial outcomes.
Therefore, Byean (2011) explained that “the problem-posing education prioritizes a reciprocal exchange for students and teachers to interrogate, negotiate, and reshape existing knowledge, power, and conditions” (Byean, 2011, p. 18).
Byean (2011) found that “in such critical classrooms, teachers are perceived as transformative intellectuals who actively engage in enhancing students’ participation as autonomous learners and linking students’ self-reflective awareness to a commitment for transforming inequalities as agents for social change” (p18) .
Moreover, it was discussed that educational process of teaching in academic contexts stresses a vital significant in the problem-posing dialogue where a participative class allows learners take part rigorously (Byean, 2011).
Therefore, instead of determining a preset course syllabus, teachers invite his students to co-assemble course syllabus from written topics on board, for example, to the directions and methods of pedagogical process through negotiation (Byean, 2011).
Byean (2011) exemplifies the problem-posing dialogue in the following:
[A teacher] first asks students to make a group or committee presentation about an issue as related to their lives. After developing their writing critically outside class, students are asked to discuss the issue of the writing in class. To maximize students’ participation, he adopts a variety of feedback methods such as self-, peer-, committee-, and teacher-editing in addition to individual or group conference at his office. He also gives students chances to rewrite or polish their essays for improving their grade. (p.18)
It is noticeable to recommend that how Critical Pedagogy can be effective; that is, learners may be able to call ownership of their classes (Byean, 2011).
It is noticeable that the main significance of this matter of ownership is related to a real-life subject with respect to local communities; in addition, a real-life subject with respect to local communities is an egalitarian and democratic class in where learners may sincerely acquire the ownership of lessons (Byean, 2011).
According to Byean (2011), by dividing the authority with learners and teachers, students’ participation invites all the lessons’ processing, from managing learning subjects and materials to planning a syllabus, and also methodology.
“As human resources, students can make great contributions to teachers as well as their fellow students; not only can they help teachers to facilitate classroom practices, they can also assist and have positive impact on their peers” (Byean, 2011, p. 19).
As an example, in English courses, “teachers provide some extensive thematic topics of local or global issues and let students negotiate and select their topic for group presentation” (Byean, 2011, p.19).
Byean (2011) exemplified that in the first session, instructors acquire to explain the class rules such as homework, the use of English, and functionality; moreover, students and teachers may manage the kinds of rubrics and assessment.
“Critical Pedagogy denies a one-time pencil and paper test but asks teachers to implement diverse tests via diverse methods such as self-, peer-, and teacher assessment by a means of assessing students’ potential” (Byean, 2011, p.20).
According to Byean (2011), because of students’ invitations to plan appropriate methodologies for their classrooms, instructors may speak with the rest of the class, or by manipulating a think tank, students and teachers could discuss the cons and pros of certain methodologies and explain appropriate ways in manipulating them in classrooms.
To achieve education recipients, “students can give teachers more objective views which contribute to improving the quality of lessons; [that is], this method also allows students to feel the strong ownership of the class since they are co-constructing it with teachers” (Byean, 2011, p.20). Therefore, Byean (2011) found the following:
Indeed, teachers should change the members of the think tank on a regular basis by a means of providing students an equal opportunity and maximizing their participation. In addition, the power of peer-assisted learning should not be neglected. Enhancing a sense of collaboration, it can diminish students’ view which regards their classmates as competitive counterparts. Also, individual assistance can promote students’ academic achievement; especially in a big class which teachers cannot give each student more attention. (p.20)
As the result, a participatory approach of Critical Pedagogy is able to specify equal subjects of both students and teachers in an educational context.
Also, the participatory approach of Critical Pedagogy intensifies learners’ autonomy, motivation, and responsibility concerning learning to a high extent.
In Critical Pedagogy, the effective relationship in the classroom may be revised from the separation into two groups of students who are passive to teachers who are assertive to try to manage an equal educational context.
2.1.2 Critical Pedagogy and Educational Process
Freire (1970) mentioned teachers are pillars of knowledge; students know nothing and teachers know everything. Teachers transfer knowledge to students and never acquire to ask that knowledge (Freire, 1970).
Teachers choose the pedagogical content and students must comply with the content (Freire, 1970). Teachers are authority to ask students to receive, memorize and repeat the pedagogical content; students are not inquired to narrate knowledge to the common injustices and problems in society with the goal of developing the society; therefore, students play a passive role in this opinion (Freire, 1970).
Freire (1970) stated the traditional opinion of education metaphorically because it seems like putting a sum of money in a bank for safekeeping; this model reflects the design of a depressing society; this model advocates fixation of reality
The main findings of Critical Pedagogy, as Gadotti (1994) claimed, is to release and instruct all people in spite of their gender, race, etc. Also, Gadotti (1994) mentioned that the pedagogy is the main interest of researchers because they sought to alter the design of a depressing society.
CP in Kanpol’s (1998) terms relies on the thought that every individual is able to educate where they involve in comprehending the schooling design by their teacher who would not allow education to be comprehended.
However, Kanpol’s (1998) opinion about Critical Pedagogy was like a tool for taking advantage of the political depression against emancipation or liberation (Joldersma, 1999).This model is not accepted because teachers should think about society to give every individual the chance to critically concern the post within a society (Joldersma, 1999).
Joldersma (1999) debated the model that the current knowledge is too complete, packaged, and objective to transferable into passive learners easily and presents the universe as fixed and static.
Moreover, Nixon-Ponder (1995) believed that learners experience five processes respectively to deal with problem posing; that is, explaining the discussion-content, describing the problem, individualizing the problem, discussing the problem, and conversing the problem alternatives.
On the other hand, Elias (1976) accepted that in model of problem posing, learners are close to their teachers in respect to analysis of the set problem and knowledge; that is, learners have a freedom to control educational process with their teacher.
According to Joldersma (1999), that is, in this model, learners think about authority and power to be held by teachers and learners seem like subjects rather than participants; therefore, this model deprive of human character and spirit because it makes oppressive submissiveness among learners.
As an alternative to the Banking Model of Freire (1970), Joldersma (1999) proposed that an issue poses education that may reach critical consciousness; that is, a problem posing pedagogy or good teaching causes the improvement of knowledge by the learners themselves.
According to Joldersma (1999), Freire, in the 1960’, mentioned a process of problem posing through literacy which became immediately common and was engaged through concerning problematic matter in students’ lives; in addition, it involves revealing reality through strenuous effort made to attain a goal for the present of consciousness and critical interference in reality.
In addition, As Giroux (1998) proposed that education should make the learners to think critically about the idea to take their step in carrying out a democratic life.

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